Lakes, Fans, Deltas, and Streams: Geomorphic Constraints on the Hydrologic History of Gale Crater, Mars


Tuesday, November 04 2014 - 12:00 pm, PST
Marisa Palucis
UC Berkeley


It has been proposed that in Gale Crater, where the Curiosity rover landed in August 2012, lakes developed to various depths after the large central mound (informally referred to as Mt. Sharp) had evolved to a form close to its current topography. Using a combination of CTX and HiRISE imagery and CTX, HiRISE and HRSC topography, we have documented a sequence of rising and falling lake levels, thereby providing a possible relative timeline of the hydrologic events within Gale crater. Assuming that the entrance canyon deposits (the canyon which the Curiosity rover will ascend once it reaches Mt. Sharp) records a back-stepping sequence of fans and deltas, then a corresponding hydrologic sequence is suggested. After the formation of a gilbert-type delta exiting an 84-km long incised valley (Farah Vallis) that drains 270,000 km2 to the south of Gale, and a corresponding lake with an average depth of 700 meters, the inflow of water from Farah Vallis fell or ceased. The lake level dropped considerably, to an elevation at least below the entrance canyon deposits. At a later time, local precipitation drove gully erosion of the Gale rim, and amplified by renewed Farah Vallis runoff, caused a rising lake level that produced deltas on the western rim of Gale and the entrance canyon deposits on Mt. Sharp. This hydrologic system shut down sufficiently abruptly that the deltas did not cut down as the lake evaporated. The time gap between these two lake forming events, perhaps driven by different hydrologic systems, is not yet established. Fan deposition around Gale crater, including the Peace Vallis fan near the rover’s landing site, likely occurred after these large lakes disappeared. This has implications for understanding regional paleo-climates on Mars after the Noachian, as well as providing context for the geology and sedimentology along the Curiosity rover traverse.

Eventbrite - Lakes, Fans, Deltas, and Streams: Geomorphic Constraints on the Hydrologic History of Gale Crater, Mars

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